Environmental impact and Improvement Countermeasur

2022-08-17
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Environmental impact of drug packaging waste and improvement countermeasures

1 Environmental problems caused by drug packaging

drug packaging mainly includes paper, plastic, metal, glass and synthetic materials. In order to prevent possible damage caused by drugs in the process of transportation and handling, a large number of fillers are added to the packaging of many drugs, and foamed plastics are the most common fillers. These packages are a part of solid waste in people's lives. Especially with the development of polymer materials, plastic packaging materials with polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as the main raw materials are widely used in drug packaging because of their low cost and excellent packaging performance. Most of these materials are difficult to degrade naturally, and the resulting "white pollution" will have a long-term impact on the water and soil environment

because the packaging materials of drugs, especially OTC drugs, are relatively scattered, and most of them are mixed with domestic waste, it is difficult to collect, sort and treat them in a centralized manner, resulting in the incineration and landfill of drug packaging materials with recycling value, resulting in a lot of waste and treatment pressure. Most of the drug packaging materials belong to this category

at the same time, some packaging materials containing drugs, especially semi-finished products and intermediate products of chemical drugs, such as medicine barrels, medicine cans, medicine bottles, medicine bags, etc., have certain chemical toxicity. If they are improperly handled and flow into the field of social consumption again, they will not only pollute the environment, but even cause poisoning events

2. Countermeasures for improving drug packaging

the European Union passed a decree on packaging in 1994. Only packaging that meets the main provisions can be sold in the European market. The market environment of China's accession to the WTO and the increasingly stringent environmental requirements of the international market for product packaging have put forward a more severe test for China's drug production enterprises and drug packaging industry. Under such a situation, while improving the quality of drugs, the effective recycling and pollution prevention of drug packaging are the problems that China's drug production enterprises must face

2.1 reduce unnecessary and excessive drug packaging

the primary mission of drug packaging is to ensure the safety of the quality of the drugs inside, which should have reliable protection, storage and environmental blocking, so as to prevent the drugs from being damaged in transportation, storage and use. The anti damage ability of different drugs and different preparations of the same drug is very different, so the drug packaging should be personalized packaging, and its packaging requirements should show different packaging forms with different product requirements. However, many drug manufacturers often use excessive packaging, which is manifested in: (1) the safety factor is too large, and the requirements for the impact resistance of drugs are too high; (2) High price ratio of drug packaging. The proportion of general variety packaging in the value of drugs in developed countries is 15% - 25%. The proportion of drug packaging price in China is significantly lower than that in developed countries, accounting for only about 8% - 9%, but the proportion of drug packaging price in some countries is more than 30%. Some drugs even cost as much as 70-80% in packaging. The high price ratio of drug packaging not only consumes too much packaging materials and aggravates environmental pollution, but also harms the interests of patients; (3) Excessive performance, disguised packaging. For example, drugs without strict impact resistance requirements are packed in aluminum boxes, and even some drugs are packed in plastic barrels and other daily necessities; (4) There are too many intermediate packages. For example, some drugs use large cases, medium cases, small cases, small cases, then small boxes, and then to the unit for packaging; (5) The packaging volume is too small, and the minimum packaging unit contained in the minimum packaging of some drug packaging is too small, which is bound to increase the drug packaging

many developed countries have begun to pay attention to this problem and take the reform of excessive packaging as an important way to green packaging

2.2 increase the environment of drug packaging. Check and revise the hydraulic testing machine and force.

packaging workers should first pay full attention to the requirements of environmental protection and resource utilization. On the premise of ensuring the basic requirements of drug packaging, packaging materials with mature technology, high effective recycling rate or natural absorption by the environment, such as recycled paper, degradable plastics, etc., shall be selected. In order to reduce the environmental pollution caused by drug packaging, so as to protect the environment. In this regard, the alcohol, beverage and other food industries have many successful experiences that can be used for reference by the pharmaceutical packaging industry

2.3 promote green signs and add necessary environmental signs. At present, many materials cannot be effectively recycled, or have not been effectively treated, resulting in environmental pollution, largely due to the lack of knowledge of their ingredients. It will play a good role in the classification and collection of drug packaging waste by indicating the composition of the packaging, whether it can be recycled or reused, whether it is combustible, protective opinions, treatment methods, etc. on the drug packaging

2.4 handle harmful packaging and dangerous packaging carefully

the packaging materials used for packaging raw materials drugs, especially chemical raw materials drugs, have high strength, and some of them directly enter the field of domestic utilization without effective treatment. The packaging of such drugs should be handled carefully before reuse. In addition, drug packaging may be contaminated by some pathogenic microorganisms in the process of use, and disinfection is an essential link in the treatment

2.5 classified treatment of drug packaging and medical waste

due to the particularity of the pharmaceutical industry, the vast majority of drugs and APIs are consumed in hospitals and pharmaceutical factories. Therefore, hospitals and pharmaceutical factories will be the concentration of intermediate packaging waste and final packaging waste of drugs. This brings convenience to the recycling of drug packaging waste. At the same time, in hospitals, pharmaceutical packaging waste is different from ordinary medical waste. If it is treated as general medical waste, it will inevitably cause a waste of resources and increase the burden of waste treatment

2.6 implement legislation and strengthen management

Germany, France and other countries have formulated the packaging waste restriction law to regulate the use of packaging materials, the recycling system of packaging materials recycling, the establishment of institutions and their operation mechanisms, and the recycling objectives of various packaging materials. In 2000, China's State Drug Administration successively promulgated the "measures for the administration of containers in which the materials and energy used for drug packaging account for about 12% of the total energy consumption of the national economy" (Provisional), "provisions on the administration of drug packaging, labels and instructions" (Provisional), "Drug Administration Law of the people's Republic of China" in February 2001, which respectively made a series of detailed provisions on drug packaging, and "measures for the administration of drug packaging" The implementation of the new drug approval measures has played a normative role in China's drug packaging. However, at present, there are no guiding opinions on the environmental affinity of drug packaging in the aspects of selection standards, classified collection, and recycling and disposal of many practitioners including packaging material suppliers, express delivery enterprises, e-commerce platforms and merchants in all links of drug production, transportation, consumption and so on

2.7 improve the accounting rules for the operating costs of pharmaceutical factories

adhere to the principle of "Whoever pollutes, who governs, who governs, and who benefits", so that the recovery and treatment costs of drug packaging are included in the enterprise costs of pharmaceutical factories, establish and improve the recovery and treatment mechanism of drug packaging, increase scientific and technological investment, improve the recovery, treatment, and utilization capacity of drug packaging, and reduce the pressure on the natural environment, At the same time, it can also bring certain economic benefits to enterprises

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